Publication Ethics


This journal followed ethics guidelines from Elsevier policies and the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and used in facing all aspects of publication ethics, particularly how to handle case of research and publication misconduct.

This are several duties and guides that need to be followed by:

- For Editors
­Publication decisions
Editors are held accountable, and all articles are the editors’ responsibility. To ensure the quality of articles and the publication's integrity, editors should use high standards in their processes.

Peer reviews
Editors should strive to ensure timely peer review and avoid unnecessary delays. At least two independent and external reviewers will be assigned to each research article. Editors must choose reviewers who have appropriate expertise in the relevant field, while also taking into account the need for appropriate, inclusive, and diverse representation.

Fair play
Editors should make fair and unbiased decisions that are not influenced by commercial considerations and they should ensure a fair and appropriate peer review process regardless of the authors' sex, gender, race, religion, or citizenship.

The editors are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of all material submitted to the journal, as well as all communications with the reviewers. The editor may share limited information with editor of other journal were seemed necessary to investigate suspected research misconduct. The identities of reviewers must be protected by the editors.

Disclosure and Conflict of interest
Editors should protect the integrity of the published record by issuing correction and retraction when needed and pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct. The editor must not be involved in decisions concerning papers written by themselves, their family members or colleagues, or papers relating to products or services in which they have a financial interest.

- For reviewers
Contribution to editorial editors
Through editorial communications with the author, peer review assists the editor in making article decisions. Any reviewers who believe they are unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript should notify the editor and decline to participate in the review process.

Manuscripts should be treated as confidential documents. Without the permission of the editor, reviewers must not share the review or any information about the paper with anyone or contact the authors without permission from the editor. Unpublished material disclosed in a submitted manuscript is not allowed to be used in a reviewer's own research.

Standard of objectivity
The review of submitted manuscripts must be conducted objectively, and the reviewers must express their opinions clearly and with supporting arguments. The results reported in the manuscript must be the original and authentic work of the authors.

Reviewers must respond in a reasonable time frame. Reviewers must explain and notify editors as soon as possible if they cannot return a review within the specified time frame specified.

- For authors
Authors must submit all elements of their manuscript online: ___. Hard-copy submission will not be considered and will be returned to authors.

Human and Animal Subjects
All articles in this journal involving human or animal subjects should adhere to the principles of research ethics outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki Declaration and the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research established by the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). In the case of prospective studies involving human participants, authors are expected to mention the approval of a (regional/ national/ institutional or independent) Ethics Committee or Review Board, as well as the process of obtaining informed consent from participants. Maintain participant confidentiality by not mentioning their names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting animal experiments, indicate whether the institution's or a national research council's guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals, was followed. Animal experimentation should be as humane as possible and the anesthetics and analgesics used should be specified. Any unethical paper will be rejected by the journal. All articles containing original human or animal data must include an ethics approval statement, as well as the approval number/ID at the beginning of the methods section.

Reporting Manuscript Standards
The results of all articles must be described clearly and honestly, with no fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. Authors must state their methods clearly and unambiguously so that others can confirm their findings.

Originality and Plagiarism
Authors must ensure that their manuscripts are not plagiarized and have not been previously published. Unless the editors have agreed to co-publication, the manuscript should not be submitted to more than one publication at the same time. The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works.

Multiple, redundant, or concurrent publication
In general, an author should not submit manuscripts describing essentially the same research to more than one journal of primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal at the same time is unethical and unacceptable.

Acknowledgement of sources
All sources of data in the research that influence the nature of the article should be identified and the work of others should be acknowledged properly.

Authorship of the paper
Authorship should be restricted to those who contributed significantly to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. Everyone who has made a significant contribution should be listed as co-authors. The articles are collectively responsible for the authors. Each author must ensure and carefully consider the list and order of authors, and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the initial submission. Those who made minor or purely technical contributions to the research or publication are acknowledged in the acknowledgement section.

Declaration of competing interests
The sources of funding and any relevant conflicts of interest should be disclosed. Employment, consulting, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications, grants, or other funding are examples of potential conflicts of interest that should be disclosed.

Notification of Fundamental Errors
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their submitted manuscript, they should immediately notify the journal editor or publisher so that the paper can be corrected.

Image integrity
Enhancing, obscuring, moving, removing, or introducing specific features within an image is not permitted. Adjustments to brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if they do not obscure or eliminate any information in the original.

Data availability
A data availability statement specifies where the research data associated with a paper can be found, including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study.

- For publisher
Provide editors with technical, procedural and legal support
We assist editors in communicating with other journals or publishers where it is beneficial to editors.

Guardianship of the scholarly record
The publisher must support the enormous efforts made by journal editors and peer reviewers to maintain the scholarly record's integrity.

Educate researchers on publishing ethics
We also offer extensive education and advice on publishing ethics standards, which is especially important for early-career researchers.

Fabrication: Fabrication is defined as the making up (manufacturing) of all or parts of an experiment or clinical data as reported in a submitted or published manuscript.
Falsification: Falsification is the false reporting of data, methods, or circumstances in the experiment or study as reported in the submitted manuscript or published article.
Plagiarism: Plagiarism is defined as the appropriation of another person's ideas, thoughts, or language and representing them as one's own original work in a submitted manuscript or published article.